Abstract
The present invention provides a planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source, a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface and a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface. The light input surface further comprises a composite lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segment each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments. Further, the circular tip segment satisfies the following equations:
y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
and the circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))}
and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed along the light input surface.
Claims
1 . A planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising:
a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a composite lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segment each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equations:
y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
and the first and second circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))}
and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed along the light input surface.
2 . The planar light guide film of claim 1 wherein the composite lens structure has a pitch P greater than or equal to 5 micrometers and less than or equal to 1 millimeter.
3 . The planar light guide film of claim 2 wherein the composite lens structure has a gap G less than or equal to 0.9 times the pitch P.
4 . The planar light guide film of claim 1 wherein the composite lens structure has a total height H greater than 3 micrometers and less than or equal to 1 millimeter.
5 . The planar light guide film of claim 1 wherein the first circular tip segment of the composite lens structure has a contact angle A 1 greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees.
6 . The planar light guide film of claim 1 wherein the second circular tip segment of the composite lens structure has a contact angle A 2 greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees.
7 . The planar light guide film of claim 1 wherein contact angles A 1 and A 2 of the of the composite lens structure are not equal.
8 . The planar light guide film of claim 5  7 wherein the composite lens structure further comprises contact angles A 31 , A 41 , A 32 , and A 42 wherein A 31 ≠A 41 , A 32 ≠A 42 and A 1 ≧A 31 , A 31 ≧A 32 , A 2 ≧A 41 , A 41 ≧A 42 .
9 . A planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising:
a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a composite lens structure having gaps there between, the lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segment each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equation:
y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
and the first and second circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))}
and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed along the light input surface.
10 . The planar light guide film of claim 9 wherein the circular tip segment of the composite lens structure has a contact angle A 1 greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees.
11 . The planar light guide film of claim 9 wherein the second circular tip segment of the composite lens structure has a contact angle A 2 greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees.
12 . The planar light guide film of claim 9 wherein contact angles A 1 and A 2 of the of the composite lens structure are not equal.
13 . The planar light guide film of claims 10  12 wherein the composite lens structure further comprises contact angles A 31 , A 41 , A 32 , and A 42 wherein A 31 ≠A 41 , A 32 ≠A 42 and A 1 ≧A 31 , A 31 ≧A 32 , A 2 ≧A 41 , A 41 ≧A 42 .
14 . A planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising:
a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a serrated lens structure that is provided only where the point light source is incident on the light input surface, the lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segment each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equations:
y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
and the first and second circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))}
and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed only where the point light source is incident on the light input surface.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0001] The present invention relates to a light guide film of a light emitting diode (LED) backlight unit, and, more particularly, to a light guide film of an LED backlight unit, which has a plurality of grooves carved into an incident plane of the light guide film to increase an incidence angle of which light can be transmitted through the light guide film.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
[0002] Typically, a liquid crystal display (LCD) for handheld and notebook devices generally employs at least one lateral light emitting diode (LED) as a light source of a backlight unit. Such a lateral LED is generally provided to the backlight unit as shown in FIG. 1 of Yang U.S. Pat. No. 7,350,598.
[0003] Referring to FIG. 1 , the backlight unit 10 comprises a planar light guide film 20 disposed on a substrate 12 , and a plurality of lateral LEDs 30 (only one lateral LED is shown in FIG. 1 ) disposed in an array on a lateral side of the light guide film 20 . Light L entering the light guide film 20 from the LED 30 is reflected upwardly by a minute reflection pattern 22 and a reflection sheet (not shown) positioned on the bottom of the light guide film 20 , and exits from the light guide film 20 , providing back light to an LCD panel 40 above the light guide film 20 . Such a backlight unit 20 suffers from a problem as shown in FIG. 2 when light is incident on the light guide film 20 from the LED 30 .
[0004] As shown in FIG. 2 , light L emitted from each LED 30 is refracted toward the light guide film 20 by a predetermined angle θ due to difference in refractive index between media according to Snell's Law when the light L enters the light guide film 20 . In other words, even though the light L is emitted at a beam angle of α 1 from the LED 30 , it is incident on the light guide film 20 at an incidence angle of α 2 less than α 1 . In FIG. 3 , such an incidence profile of light L is shown. Therefore, there is a problem of increasing the length (l) of a combined region where beams of light L entered the light guide film 20 from the respective LEDs 30 are combined. In addition, light spots H also called “hot spots” and dark spots D are alternately formed in the region corresponding to the length (l) on the incident plane of the light guide film 20 . Each of the light spots H is formed at a location facing the LED 30 , and each of the dark spots D is formed between the light spots H.
[0005] Since the alternately formed light and dark spots are not desirable for the light guide film, they should be minimized and the length (l) should be shortened as much as possible. For this purpose, it is necessary to increase an angle of light entering the light guide film, that is, an incidence angle of light.
[0006] For this purpose, it is suggested to form protrusions on the input surface of the light guide film as shown in FIG. 4 . Specifically, a plurality of fine prismshaped structures 24 or arcshaped structures (not shown) are formed on a light input surface 20 A of a light guide film 20 and light L enters the light guide film at an incidence angle α 3 substantially equal to an orientation angle α 1 of light emitted from a focal point F of a light source. Thus, if orientation angles α 1 of light beams emitted from the focal point F of the light source are identical, the light L enters the light guide film at an incidence angle α 3 wider than the case of FIGS. 2 and 3 . However, with this solution, there is some secondary light collimation where the light rays are refracted by the wall of the adjacent prism or arcshaped structure as shown in FIG. 4 . Secondary light collimation from the walls of the adjacent prism structure turns the light ray back onaxis providing less diffusion of the light from the light source as shown in FIG. 4 . Thus the continuous prism or arcshaped structures on the input surface have limited light diffusing capability.
[0007] Therefore an improved input edge design is needed to provide a more uniform surface illumination of the light guide film without sacrificing the efficiency of the backlight system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0008] The present invention is aimed at overcoming the problems (hot spots and secondary light collimation) associated with the above prior art and therefore yield a more uniform surface illumination of the light guide film without sacrificing the efficiency of the backlight system.
[0009] The present invention provides a planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising: a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a composite lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segments each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and
[0000] wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equations respectively:
[0000] y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] and the circular base segments satisfies the following equations respectively:
[0000] y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
[0000] y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))}
[0000] and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed along the light input surface.
[0010] In addition, the invention further provides a planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising: a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a composite lens structure having gaps there between, the lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segments each circular base segment with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and
[0000] wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equations respectively:
[0000] y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] and the circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
[0000] y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
[0000] y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x+a 4 ) 2 ))}
[0000] and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed along the light input surface.
[0011] Further, the invention provides a planar light guide film for a backlight unit having at least one point light source, the light guide film comprising: a light input surface for receiving light from the point light source; a light redirecting surface for redirecting light received from the light input surface; a light output surface for outputting at least the light redirected from the light redirecting surface; wherein the light input surface further comprises a serrated lens structure that is provided only where the point light source is incident on the light input surface, the composite lens structure having a first and second circular tip segment each circular tip segment with a first contact angle, and a first and second circular base segments with a top and bottom contact angle, the contact angles of the circular base segments being less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments; and
[0000] wherein the first and second circular tip segments satisfies the following equations respectively:
[0000] y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))}
[0000] and the circular base segments satisfies the following equations:
[0000] y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))}
[0000] y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x+a 4 ) 2 ))}
[0000] and each of the composite lens structures is randomly disposed only where the point light source is incident on the light input surface.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0012] FIG. 1 shows a schematic diagram illustrating a conventional backlight module;
[0013] FIG. 2 shows a schematic diagram illustrating the distribution of bright/dark bands of a conventional light guide plate;
[0014] FIG. 3 shows a schematic diagram illustrating an embodiment of conventional lightdiffusing structures;
[0015] FIG. 4 shows a schematic diagram illustrating another embodiment of conventional lightdiffusing structures;
[0016] FIGS. 5 a and 5 b shows a schematic diagram illustrating a light guide film according to an embodiment of the invention;
[0017] FIG. 6 a  6 c show schematic diagrams illustrating the various segments of the composite lens feature according to an embodiment of the invention;
[0018] FIGS. 7 a and 7 b show schematic diagrams illustrating the light diffusing capability of the composite lens feature with a gap between each adjacent feature;
[0019] FIG. 8 shows another embodiment of this invention;
[0020] FIG. 9 shows another embodiment of this invention;
[0021] FIGS. 10 a and 10 b show the luminance intensity at various distances from the light input surface for a circular or arc shaped input feature;
[0022] FIGS. 11 a and 11 b show the luminance intensity at various distances from the light input surface for a trapezoidal feature or feature with slanted sides; and
[0023] FIGS. 12 a and 12 b show the luminance intensity at various distances from the light input surface according to an embodiment of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
[0024] A light guide film in accordance with the present invention comprises a light output surface, a light redirecting surface and at least one light input surface that joins the light output surface and the light redirecting surface. The light input surface comprises a plurality of concave features consisting of a composite lens array. Each of the composite lenses is separated by a gap that is a flat surface perpendicular to the light output surface. The composite lenses and gaps are disposed along the light input surface, and extend from the output surface to the light redirecting surface. Each of the composite lenses has an asymmetric crosssection consisting of a tip portion comprising a first and second circular tip segment each of a first contact angle and a base portion comprising two tilted circular base segments each with a top and bottom contact angle. The circular base segment contact angles being less than the circular tip segment contact angles and where the contact angles for each of the two circular tip segments and the top and bottom contact angles for each of the two tilted circular base segments are not equal.
[0025] According to the above embodiment, the geometrical profile of the composite lens allows for comparatively large light deflecting distances; that is, the composite lens structure has better lightdiffusing capability. Thus, the distance between the point light source and the active area of the display can be shortened, and the dark spots between the point light sources can be minimized, with the brightness uniformity still being acceptable. The circular tip segments distribute the light in front of the discrete light source, typically a light emitting diode (LED). The two tilted circular base segments distribute the light between the LEDs. Since the composite lens structure is composed of two circular tip segments and two circular base segments, it allows more degrees of freedom to fine tune the luminance profile than would be attainable if the structure were composed of fewer segments. The asymmetry of the composite lens structure aids in correcting the inputted light from the LEDs. Further, it is also necessary that each two adjacent composite lens structures have a gap or flat there between so a greater degree of deflection on the propagation path of the incident light can be achieved to thereby increase the lightdiffusing effect. Unlike the asymmetric structures described in Yamashita et al. U.S. Pat. No. 7,522,809 where the asymmetric features are aligned all in the same direction to overcome the light directivity resulting from the prism films in the backlight system being cut at a 15 degree angle rather than the prism being perpendicular or parallel to the input face. In this invention in order to achieve a uniform distribution of light into the light guide, there is a random distribution of the asymmetric structures across the light input face. The random placement of the asymmetric structures also aids in reducing cosmetic defects created by a regular pattern interfacing with the pattern of the liquid crystal display.
[0026] Referring to FIGS. 5 a and 5 b , a light guide film according to an embodiment of the invention is shown, wherein a planar light guide film 12 is used to receive and guide the light from at least one point light source (such as LEDs 14 shown in FIG. 5 a ). The side surface of the light guide film 12 next to the LED 14 forms a light input surface 12 a . The top surface of the light guide film 12 that makes an angle with the light input surface 12 a forms a lightemitting surface 12 b , and the bottom surface opposite the lightemitting surface 12 b forms a lightreflecting surface 12 c . The lightreflecting surface 12 c is comprised of a plurality of light reflecting structures. The light emitted from the LED 14 enters the light guide film 12 via the light input surface 12 a and propagates inside the light guide film 12 . Then, it is guided toward the lightemitting surface 12 b by the lightreflecting surface 12 c and finally exits the light guide film 12 through the lightemitting surface 12 b.
[0027] Further, a plurality of concave composite lens structures 16 are serrated on the edge of the light input surface 12 a , with their longitudinal directions being parallel to each other and having a gap (G) between each adjacent composite lens structure 16 . Referring now to FIGS. 6 a , 6 b and 6 c , the light input surface 12 a , facing the LED 14 , of the composite lens structure 16 has a first circular tip segment 16 a and a second circular tip segment 16 d , and two tilted circular base segments 16 b and 16 c , respectively. The circular tip segments 16 a and 16 d of the concave composite lens structure 16 are the segments furthest from the light input surface 12 a . Although the composite lens features for the preferred embodiment of this invention are disposed in a concave direction on the light input surface, the composite lens may also be in a convex direction on the light input surface.
[0028] The length T 1 is the distance between the intersection of the extension of a tangent at the top of the first circular base segment 16 b , and the intersection of the first circular tip segment 16 a and the second circular tip segment 16 d , where T 1 is parallel to the light input surface 12 a . The length T 2 is the distance between the intersections of the extension of the tangent at the top of the second circular base segment 16 c , and the intersection of the first circular tip segment 16 a and the second circular tip segment 16 d , where T 2 is parallel to the light input surface 12 a . The width T 3 of the first circular tip segment 16 a is equal to r 1 times the sine of contact angle A 1 , where T 3 is parallel to the light input surface 12 a . The width T 4 of the second circular tip segment 16 d is equal to r 2 times the sine of contact angle A 2 , where T 4 is parallel to the light input surface 12 a . The contact angle A 1 is the contact angle of the first circular tip segment 16 a where the angle is formed by a tangent at the intersection of the first circular tip segment 16 a and the top of the first circular base segment 16 b and the light input surface 12 a . Contact angle A 1 is preferably greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees. The contact angle A 2 is the contact angle of the second circular tip segment 16 d where the angle is formed by a tangent at the intersection of the second circular tip segment 16 d and the top of the second circular base segment 16 c and the light input surface 12 a . Contact angle A 2 is preferably greater than 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees. Contact angle A 1 does not equal contact angle A 2 Referring now to FIG. 6 b , the gap G is the distance between each adjacent composite lens. Preferably, the gap G is less than or equal to 0.9 times the pitch P. The pitch P of the linear composite lens array 16 is the distance along the light input edge which includes the gap G distance and the width of the composite lens structure, the width B 3 plus the width B 4 . Preferably the pitch P is greater than or equal to 5 micrometers and less than or equal to 1 millimeter (mm). The total height H of the feature is measured from the light input edge to the intersection of the first and second circular tip segments 16 a and 16 d . The total height H of the composite lens is greater than or equal to 3 micrometers and less than or equal to 1 millimeter. The light input surface 12 a will have a surface finish of 10 nanometers to 2 micrometers. The surface finish of the concave composite lens structures 16 can be the same or different than the gap G portion between the features.
[0029] Advantageously, the circular tip of the composite lens structure comprises a first circular tip segment and a second circular tip segment. The shape of an XY section of the first circular tip segment 16 a satisfies the following expression (1):
[0000] y 1 =a 1 +√{square root over (( r 1 2 −x 2 ))} (1)
[0000] where the first circular tip segment 16 a has a first radius r 1 . The first radius r 1 is defined as the quotient of the distance T 1 divided by the tangent of half the contact angle A 1 . The parameter a 1 is defined as the total height H of the composite lens feature 16 minus the radius r 1 of the first circular tip segment 16 a . The coordinate x is a value in the direction of the light input surface and is preferably set within the range of −r 1 ×sin(A 1 )≦x≦0. The coordinate y 1 is a value in the light propagation direction.
The shape of an XY section of the second circular tip segment 16 d satisfies the following expression (2):
[0000] y 2 =a 2 +√{square root over (( r 2 2 −x 2 ))} (2)
[0000] where the second circular tip segment 16 d has a second radius r 2 . The second radius r 2 is defined as the quotient of the distance T 2 divided by the tangent of half the contact angle A 2 . The parameter a 2 is defined as the total height H of the composite lens feature 16 minus the radius r 2 of the second circular tip segment 16 d . The coordinate x is a value in the direction of the light input surface and is preferably set within the range of 0≦x≦r 2 ×sin(A 2 ). The coordinate y 2 is a value in the light propagation direction.
[0030] Referring now to FIG. 6 c , the composite lens structure also comprises two tilted circular base segments, namely a first circular base segment 16 b and a second circular base segment 16 c . Each circular base segment comprises two contact angles, a top contact angle and a bottom contact angle. The first circular base segment 16 b has a top contact angle A 31 and a bottom contact angle A 32 . The second circular base segment 16 c has a top contact angle A 41 and a bottom contact angle A 42 . The top contact angle A 31 is created by a tangent to the first circular base segment 16 b at the point where the first circular tip segment 16 a and the first circular base segment 16 b intersect. The bottom contact angle A 32 is created by a tangent to the first circular base segment 16 b at the point where the first circular base segment 16 b intersects the light input surface 12 a . The top contact angle A 41 is created by a tangent to the second circular base segment 16 c at the point where the second circular tip segment 16 d and the second circular base segment 16 d intersect. The bottom contact angle A 42 is created by a tangent to the second circular base segment 16 c at the point where the second circular base segment 16 c intersects the light input surface 12 a . The top contact angle A 31 of the first circular base segment 16 b and the top contact angle A 41 of the second circular base segment 16 c are not equal. The bottom contact angle A 32 of the first circular base segment 16 b and the bottom contact angle A 42 of the second circular base segment 16 c are not equal. The bottom contact angles of each of the circular base segments are less than their corresponding top contact angles. Each of the contact angles for each of the two circular base segments 16 b and 16 c are less than the contact angles A 1 and A 2 of the circular tip segments 16 a and 16 d respectively. Preferably, the contact angle (A 31 , A 32 , A 41 , A 42 ) for each circular base segments is greater than or equal to 0.1 degrees and less than or equal to 85 degrees.
[0031] Advantageously, the shape of an XY section of the circular base segments 16 b and 16 c as shown in FIG. 6 c satisfy the following expressions (3 and 4) respectively:
[0000] y 3 =b 3 −√{square root over (( r 3 2 −( x+a 3 ) 2 ))} (3)
[0000] y 4 =b 4 −√{square root over (( r 4 2 −( x−a 4 ) 2 ))} (4)
Wherein:
[0032]
r
3
=
H
3
/
[
cos
(
A
31
)

cos
(
A
32
)
]
a
3
=
[
(
T
3
+
B
3
)
+
H
3
×
(
4
r
3
2

(
B
3

T
3
)
2

H
3
2
)
/
(
(
B

T
3
)
2
+
H
3
2
)
]
/
2
b
3
=
r
3
2

(
B
3

a
3
)
2
H
3
=
H

r
1
×
[
1

cos
(
A
1
)
]
H
4
=
H

r
2
×
[
1

cos
(
A
2
)
]
B
3
+
B
4
=
P

G
B
3
=
T
3
+
H
3
×
(
sin
(
A
32
)

sin
(
A
31
)
)
/
(
cos
(
A
31
)

cos
(
A
32
)
)
B
4
=
T
4
+
H
4
×
(
sin
(
A
42
)

sin
(
A
41
)
)
/
(
cos
(
A
41
)

cos
(
A
42
)
)

B
3
≤
x
≤

T
3
T
4
≤
x
≤
B
4
r
4
=
H
4
/
[
cos
(
A
41
)

cos
(
A
42
)
]
a
4
=
[
(
T
4
+
B
4
)
+
H
4
×
(
4
r
4
2
+
(
B
4

T
4
)
2

H
4
2
)
/
(
(
B
4

T
4
)
2
+
H
4
2
)
]
/
2
b
4
=
r
4
2

(
B
4

a
4
)
2
[0033] Thus, the first circular base segment 16 b has a radius r 3 and the second circular base segment 16 c has a radius r 4 . Referencing FIGS. 6 a , 6 b and 6 c , the radius r 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b is defined as the quotient of the height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b divided by the quantity the cosine of the contact angle A 31 at the top of the first circular base segment 16 b minus the cosine of the contact angle A 32 at the bottom of the first circular base segment 16 b . The height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b is equal to the total height H of the composite lens feature 16 minus the radius r 1 of the first circular tip segment 16 a times the quantity 1 minus the cosine of contact angle A 1 of the first circular tip segment 16 a.
[0034] The parameter a 3 is equal to one half the quotient of the quantity the width T 3 of the circular tip segment 16 a plus the width B 3 of the composite lens feature 16 plus the quantity the height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b times the square root of the quotient of the quantity 4 times the square of the radius r 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b minus the square of the quantity of the width B 3 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the width T 3 of the circular tip segment 16 a , minus the square of the total height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b divided by the square of the quantity of the width B 3 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the width T 3 of the circular tip segment 16 a , plus the square of the total height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b . The width B 3 of the composite lens feature 16 is equal to the quotient of the quantity of the width T 3 of the first circular tip segment 16 a plus the height H 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b times the quantity the sine of contact angle A 32 at the bottom of the first circular base segment 16 b minus the sine of contact angle A 31 at the top of the first circular base segment 16 b divided by the quantity cosine of the contact angle A 31 at the top of the first circular base segment 16 b minus the cosine of the contact angle A 32 at the bottom of the first circular base segment 16 b . The parameter b 3 is equal to the square root of the quantity of the radius r 3 of the first circular base segment 16 b squared minus the quantity the width B 3 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the parameter a 3 that quantity squared.
[0035] The coordinate x is a value in the direction of the light input surface or more specifically in the direction of the total width B of the composite lens feature 16 and is preferably set within the range of −B 3 ≦x≦−T 3 . The coordinate y 3 is a value in the light propagation direction.
[0036] Referencing FIGS. 6 a and 6 c , and equation 4, the radius r 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c is defined as the quotient of the height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c divided by the quantity the cosine of the contact angle A 41 at the top of the second circular base segment 16 c minus the cosine of the contact angle A 42 at the bottom of the second circular base segment 16 c . The height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c is equal to the total height H of the composite lens feature 16 minus the radius r 2 of the second circular tip segment 16 d times the quantity 1 minus the cosine of contact angle A 2 of the second circular tip segment 16 d.
[0037] The parameter a 4 is equal to one half the quotient of the quantity of the width T 4 of the second circular tip segment 16 d plus the width B 4 of the composite lens feature 16 plus the height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c times the square root of the quotient of the quantity 4 times the square of the radius r 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c minus the square of the quantity of the width B 4 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the width T 4 of the circular tip segment 16 d , minus the square of the height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c divided by the square of the quantity of the width B 4 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the width T 4 of the circular tip segment 16 d , plus the square of the height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c . The width B 4 of the composite lens feature 16 is equal to the width T 4 of the second circular tip segment 16 d plus the height H 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c times the quantity the sine of contact angle A 42 at the bottom of the second circular base segment 16 c minus the sine of contact angle A 41 at the top of the second circular base segment 16 c divided by the quantity cosine of the contact angle A 41 at the top of the second circular base segment 16 c minus the cosine of the contact angle A 42 at the bottom of the second circular base segment 16 c.
[0038] The parameter b 4 is equal to the square root of the quantity of the radius r 4 of the second circular base segment 16 c squared minus the quantity the width B 4 of the composite lens feature 16 minus the parameter a 4 that quantity squared.
[0039] The coordinate x is a value in the direction of the light input surface or more specifically in the direction of the total width B of the composite lens feature 16 and is preferably set within the range of T 4 ≦x≦B 4 . The coordinate y 4 is a value in the light propagation direction.
[0040] FIG. 7 a is a ray tracing for an array of a single composite lens feature 16 of this invention illustrating what happens to the light rays when the individual composite lens features are disposed on the light input surface 12 a in a contiguous manner such that there is no gap G between adjacent composite lenses. FIG. 7 b is a similar ray tracing, but where the individual composite lens feature is separated by a gap G between adjacent features. The gap G is preferably less than or equal to 0.9P where P (as shown in FIG. 6 b ) is the pitch of the composite lens feature on the input surface 12 a . In FIG. 7 a , where the composite lens features are adjacent each other along the input surface, some of the light rays will experience a secondary light collimation as they are refracted when they reach the side of the adjacent feature. This secondary light collimation detracts from the diffusion capability of the composite lens feature 16 . In FIG. 7 b , the composite lens features are separated by a gap G. The gap allows the light ray to continue in a diffuse manner and thus widens the angle at which the light propagates in the light guide film. There is minimal secondary light collimation when the gap between features is incorporated into the composite lens feature design. In this way, the wider angle of light helps to mitigate the hot spots along the input surface of the light guide film.
[0041] Referring now to FIG. 8 , the light guide film 12 in FIG. 8 shows the composite lens features 16 not disposed along the entire input surface 12 a . Instead, the composite lens features 16 are disposed along the light input surface 12 a in the region where the LED 14 light is incident. The luminance uniformity of the system is minimally affected as the unpatterned region on the light input surface has minimal light rays in this region.
[0042] Referring now to FIG. 9 , the light guide film 12 shows a section where there is a random distribution of the composite lens features 16 . This distribution can include base contact angles that can be greater than or less than the top contact angles of composite lens feature 16 .
EXAMPLES
[0043] FIG. 10 a shows a portion of the light input surface 32 of a light guide film 30 with an arc or circulartype structure 36 . The graph in FIG. 10 b illustrates the light intensity for the light guide film 30 at distances 3.5 mm, 4.5 mm and 5.5 mm from the light input surface 32 . FIG. 10 b shows that the localized light intensity decreases as the distance increases from the light input surface, but there are still some hot spots evident at 5.5 mm. The arc or circulartype structure solution provides some improvement for hot spots but is more effective at collimating light in line with the LED than widening the incidence angle. This is evident in the graph in FIG. 10 b . In FIG. 10 b , the LEDs are located at each of the vertical dotted lines and the light distribution is still not leveled out at 5.5 mm into the light guide film. It is apparent from the graph in FIG. 10 b that the arc or circulartype solution has insufficient diffusion capability.
[0044] FIG. 11 a shows a portion of the light input surface 42 of a light guide film 40 with a composite lens structure that has flat slanted sides 46 . This result would also be applicable to a trapezoidal shaped light input structure. The graph in FIG. 11 b illustrates the light intensity for the light guide film 40 at distances 3.5 mm, 4.5 mm and 5.5 mm from the light input surface 42 . FIG. 11 b shows that the localized light intensity actually inverts in the area immediately in front of the LEDs, resulting in a dark spot immediately in front of the LEDs. This overall loss of light intensity immediately in front of the LED is due to the fact that the straight slanted walls diffuse the light more readily through the sides than through the tip. It is also noted that the shape of the light intensity profile across the light guide film does not change significantly as the distance increases from the input surface 42 .
[0045] FIG. 12 a shows a portion of the light input surface 52 of a light guide film 50 with the composite lens feature 56 of this invention. The composite lens feature utilizes a circular tip with two circular tip segments and a base with two tilted circular base segments. The radius of each of the two tilted circular base segments is not equal and the radius of each of the two circular tip segments is not equal. The bottom contact angle of each of the two tilted circular base segments is less than the contact angle of the circular tip segments. The bottom contact angle of each of the two tilted circular base segments is less than the top contact angle of the circular base segments. The circular tip distributes the light in the area immediately in front of the LED. The two tilted circular base segments distribute the light between the LEDs. The asymmetry of the composite lens structure aids in correcting the iputted light from the LEDs. The graph in FIG. 12 b illustrates that the composite lens 56 of the present invention generates uniform light output across the light guide film at distances of 3.5 mm, 4.5 mm and 5.5 mm from the input surface 52 .
[0046] Hence, an improved light guide film is provided with asymmetric light redirecting features to improve light output uniformity without sacrificing light input efficiency. Namely, the improved light guide film 12 having composite lens structure 16 provides enhanced light diffusion in the plane parallel to the light extraction plane and light reflection plane (top and bottom surfaces), allowing greater light redistribution between discrete light sources (light traveling outside the critical angle of planar unserrated input edge), so that the light output uniformity is improved. Moreover, the light distribution in the plane perpendicular to the light extraction plane and light reflection plane (top and bottom surfaces) is minimized, so that the condition of the total internal reflection is minimized for the inputted traveling light.